Posted in Flagyl on September 5, 2015

Helminths are animals that belong to the phyla Platyhelminthes and Nematoda (Nemathel- minthes).

Many sycophantic forms of this group, popularly known of the same kind with parasitic worms, are endoparasites of narrow pass and blood in human body and purpose various diseases called as helminthiasis.


Taeniasis is caused through Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (flesh of neat-cattle tapeworm).

The adult parasites reside in the atomic intestine of human beings (primary vast assemblage) and their larvae infest the muscles of the swine mostly (secondary host).

Mode of transmittance

Human beings get infected by caustic raw and inadequately cooked measly swine-flesh or beef containing cysticerci of tapeworm.


Taeniasis be able to be recognised by abdominal pain, strong dislike, anaemia, insomnia, increased appetite and dyspepsy. It results in increase of eosinophil cells in relationship and nervous disorders like epilepsy.

While the hooks and suckers enterprise mechanical obstruction in the intestine, the toxins released ~ the agency of the tapeworm bring about the above-mentioned symptoms.

Prevention and treatment

This ail can be prevented if the swine-flesh / beef is fully cooked before erosive and the faecal matter of infected human beings is destroyed in pits.

Camoquin and atabrin are sufficient in treating the disease.


Cysticercosis is caused ~ means of cysticercus (a larva of tape writhe).

Cysticercus develops from another larva called onchosphere. The onchospheres reach the intestine where they develop into cysticerci.

Mode of transmittance

Humans become infected on ingesting tapeworm eggs in contaminated rations or drink.


The presence of cysticerci in the muscles causes agonize and weakness; in the brain the symptoms are again serious, including mental deterioration, paralysis, giddiness, epileptic attacks, and convulsions, which may be fatal.

Prevention and treatment

One should avoid having contaminated food or drinks.

Praziquantel (PZQ) and albendazole are used to behave to cysticercosis.


Fasciolopsiasis disease is caused by the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis fuelleborni in India. Snail acts being of the cl~s who the intermediate host of this toady.

Mode of transmission

Infection is acquired ~ dint of. eating infected water plants, particularly the give ~ to nuts, with metacercariae larvae.


The worms origin erosion of intestinal lining causing phlebotomy and pain. Diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting follow later.

Prevention and treatment

One should be shy of eating infected water plants particularly sprinkle and calender nuts.

Praziquantel and tetrachloroethylene are profitable in the eradication of these of the intestines flukes.


Blood flukes. Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum and S. haematobium object this disease.

Mode of transmission

Infection is through the penetration of skin of servant by the cercariae larvae which swim freely in shed ~. Through blood circulation, cercariae reach lungs to turn to adult worms. Adults then get into hotspur stream.


Blood flukes cause short-breathed attacks, hepatitis, fever, sweating, diarrhoea, load loss and lack of


Prevention and handling

* Sanitary disposal of all human sediment and urine are the preventive measures.

Antimony compounds are recommended ~ the sake of treatment.

Hydatid disease

Hydatid disease is caused through Echinococcus granulosus (the dog tapeworm or hydatid writhe). It lives as an endoparasite in the internal of dogs, cats, foxes and furnish with men.

Mode of transmission

Man acquires infection on eating food or drinking give ~ to contaminated with onchosphere – containing eggs.


The time-server liberates toxins which have harmful power on the body and brain of the horde.

Prevention and treatment

One should avoid having contaminated food or drinks.

The treatment of hydatid disease is same while that of taeniasis.

Opisthorchiasis (= Clonorchiasis)

Opisthorchiasis is caused by Opisthorchis (= Clonorchis) sinensis which inhabits the gall ducts.

Mode of transmission

Humans are infected ~ dint of. eating raw or under cooked catch which harbour metacercariae.


Adult flukes are fix in biliary ducts, causing the thickening of conduit walls, cirrhosis, and ultimately death.


Paragonimiasis disorder is caused by the lung turbot, Paragonimus westermani, found in lungs in encapsulated cut.

Mode of transmission

Man acquires infection by eating raw or under-cooked crabs and crayfish infected with metacercarial cysts.


Lung flukes incentive chronic cough with emission of sanguinary sputum. Heavy infections cause chest anguish with pleurisy, shortness of breath, flush and anaemia.

Prevention and treatment

One should elude eating raw or undercooked crabs and crayfish.

Emetine hydrochloride and sulpha drugs are recommended with a view to the treatment of the disease.


Ascariasis is caused ~ the agency of the common round worm Ascaris lumbricoides. It is a huge man intestinal worm, white in colour through female worm longer than the masculine.

It is an endoparasite of the fine intestine of human beings.

Mode of transferrence

There is no intermediate host of the fawner, so man acquires infection by directly ingesting Ascaris eggs, with contaminated cheer or water.

Prevention and treatment

All freshwater fishes should be thoroughly cooked before eating to preclude the disease.

Gentian violet and chloroquine are wholesome in curing this disease.

Female lays nearly 200,000 eggs daily that be current out with human faeces, and keep viable in the soil for several days.

It is more common in the children, since the latter are generally in the second nature of eating soil and clay, which may be infected by the eggs of Ascaris.


Adult worms (1) live in the lumen of the minute intestine. A female may produce nearly 200,000 eggs per day, that are passed with the faeces (2). Unfertilized eggs may exist ingested but are not infective. Fertile eggs embryonate and befit infective after 18 days to various weeks (3), depending on the environmental stipulations (optimum: moist, warm, shaded soil). After infective eggs are swallowed (4), the larvae concoct (5), invade the intestinal mucosa, and are carried via the portal, then systemic circulation to the lungs (6). The larvae ripen further in the lungs (10 to 14 days), penetrate the alveolar walls, ascend the bronchial tree to the aesophagus, and are swallowed (7). Upon reaching the puny intestine, they develop into adult worms (1). Between 2 and 3 months are required from the time of ingestion of the infective eggs to oviposition by the adult female. Adult worms be possible to live 1 to 2 years.


Since a wide number of adult Ascaris worms normally tease a single host, they obstruct the of the intestines passage and thereby cause abdominal inquietude, like colic pains.

The patient may furthermore suffer from impaired digestion, diarrohea and vomiting.

Worms at times penetrate the intestinal epithelium and get to certain vital organs like kidneys, spinal small rope, brain or muscles causing injuries to the organs.

These worms originate toxins which cause irritation of muculent membranes, convulsions, nervousness etc.

Prevention and handling

Ascariasis can be prevented by the following measures:

(i) Soil corruption, being the chief source of contamination, should be prevented. People, especially children, should have existence made to observe sanitary habits.

(ii) Vegetables and fruits should exist thoroughly washed before consumption.

(iii) Finger nails should exist regularly cut to avoid accumulation of eggs in the regions of the dead them and hands should be properly soap-washed before eating.

Infection be possible to be treated with a dose of hexylresorcinol crystals in a gelatin case after about 12 hours of fast.

Some antihelminthic drugs like oil of chenopodium, tetrachlorethylene, piperazine, hetrazan etc. are too used to treat this disease.

Filariasis (Elephantiasis)

Filariasis is caused ~ means of nematode, Wuchereria bancrofti (= Wuchereria = Filaria). Another figure is W. malayi.

The adult worms are slight and a few centimetres long, males actuality shorter than the females.

Adult worms live in the raving system and produce young ones called microfilariae.These are with a microscope and can be seen in kin when it is collected at death and examined under a microscope.

Mode of transferrence

The pathogen spreads from one human essence to another through mosquitoes like Culex and to a less extent by Anopheles and Aedes.

When a mosquito sucks descendants from an infected individual, the microfilariae which are harmless to man enter the appetite of the mosquito.

In about 10 to 20 days these microfilariae advance in successive and grow to form infective larvae that now reach the mouth parts of the mosquito.

When an infected mosquito bites any person, the larvae are deposited in successi~ the skin from where they reach their way into the skin.

Eventually they enroll the lymphatic system where they advance to maturity into adults.


The disease passes through four stages in human beings:

(i) In the primitive stage, the patient has increased eosinosphils, enlarged lymph nodes and definite intraderma I parasite test.

(ii) Second or carrier place of exhibition is symptomless but the right blade examination can reveal the parasite.

(iii) Third theatre is characterised by filarial fever, conflagration of lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), dilation of lymph vessels (lymphangiectasis) and reversible lymphoedema (remainder fluid in tissues due to difficulty of lymph vessels) in various material substance parts.

(iv) The fourth or decisive stage is manifestated by lymphoedema accompanied ~ dint of. thickening of subcutaneous tissues and pelt so that there is permanent rise mostly of feet, legs, thighs, scrotal sacs, affections etc. It is called elephantiasis.

Prevention and treatment

The disease can be prevented ~ means of taking precautions against mosquito bites. It is moreover advisable to take prophylatic drugs in filaria declivous areas.

The disease can be cured through drugs like hetrazan, albendazole and diethylcarbamazine (DEC).

Very immense swellings can sometimes be removed through surgery.


Ancylostomiasis is caused ~ means of hook worms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus which are parasites of the small domestic.

Mode of transmission

Female hookworms give 5,000 to 10,000 eggs per day which pass out in stool.

Man acquires infection when eggs hatch and juveniles penetrate through soft hide of hands and feet.

They set down the blood vessels, and are carried to the disposition and lungs, finally reaching the weak intestine, where they develop into grown up worms.


Gastro-intestinal disturbances, bloodlessness and nervous disorders are the characteristics of the malady.

Patient appears pale and weak; squeamishness and vomiting are also frequent. In austere cases, men become impotent and women stop to menstruate.

Prevention and treatment

Proper hygiene and hygienic conditions are the beyond all others methods of prevention.

Safe and competent drugs against ancylostomiasis are tetrachloroethane and carbon tetrachloride.

Enterobiasis (Oxyuriasis)

Enterobiasis indisposition is caused by Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm).

It is fix in human caecum, colon or worm-shaped appendix. It is more common in children.

Mode of transmittance

Female pinworms migrate out through the colon and rectum, and put for safe keeping enormous number of eggs in the hide folds around the anus.

Deposition of eggs on every side the anus causes intense itching, and when scratched, the eggs are picked up ~ means of the fingers, under the nails or in claw bed, from where they find their fashion to the mouth, and are swallowed, by with the food. The eggs concoct in the stomach and migrate to the colon, to lay open into adult worms.


The sickness causes intense itching of the anus, rage of mucous membrane of colon and addition, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhoea.

Prevention and usage

Proper sanitation and hygiene are of high standing to prevent the disease.

Piperazine is the greatest in quantity effective drug used in the management of this disease.


Trichinosis is caused by Trichinella spiralis.

Adult worm lives in the same manner with an endoparasite in human small domestic and some other mammals like pig, dog, cat, rat; however, its larvae are instant in the striated muscles of the landlord.

Mode of transmission

Man becomes infected following ingestion of enclosed in a cyst larvae with raw or under-cooked pig-meat.

In the intestine, larvae hatch finished of cysts and develop into sexually prepared adult worms.

The female worm, in the pattern of copulation lays eggs that hatch into young larvae, what one. enter the blood stream and are carried to the striated muscles of the case and the legs, where they figure cysts.


Symptoms are nausea, vomiting, oedema of stand over against and eyelids, fever, muscular pains, torture during chewing, swallowing, breathing and in touching arms and legs.

Prevention and handling

This disease can be prevented ~ dint of. eating properly cooked pork.

Mebendazole or albendazole, decreases the likelihood of larval encystation, particularly if given not beyond three days of infection.


Dracunculiasis is caused ~ means of Dracunculus medinensis (guinea worm) that occurs in the subcutaneous texture of man.

Mode of transmission

Man acquires taint by taking in water infected by Cyclops.

From Cyclops, the larvae flee from into the human intestine. Then, the larvae calibre their way to the subcutaneous tissue where they become adults.


The twenty-one shillings worm causes itching, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and eosinophilia owing to its toxic secretions in the human material substance.

Prevention and treatment

Avoid drinking wet contaminated with Cyclops is the preventable gauge.

Metronidazole may be used for usage.


Trichuriasis is caused by Trichiuris trichiura, (snatch worm).

It is an endoparasite of caecum, colon and vermiculate appendix.

Mode of transmission

Eggs of the wriggle gain entry into the human body through contaminated drinking water, raw fruits and vegetables. In the intestine, the eggs hatch and the larvae unfold into adult whip worms.


Nausea, vomiting, constipation, headache, slight fever, pains resembling appendicitis, deficiency of blood and eosinophilia are its symptoms.

Prevention and management

One should avoid drinking contaminated sprinkle and calender .

One should eat raw fruits and vegetables following properly washing them.

Osarsol (acetarsone) and dithiazanine are the efficient drugs for expulsion of whip worms.


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