Glutamate Transporter Boosting Medications
Propentofylline increases the play of features of both the GLT-1 and GLAST glutamate transporters general tone in vitro, and significantly enhanced glutamate uptake in astrocytes. 1 2 Propentofylline nuncupative bioavailability is only 4%. Propentofylline moiety life of 15 – 45 minutes. Molecular ponderousness: 306.
Note that the study used obscure concentrations of propentofylline (100 microM), that would equate to very high human vocal dosages of 30 grams of propentofylline (infectious into account the low 4% bioavailability). Transdermal solicitation of propentofylline would be the best idea, as this avoids the earliest-pass metabolism, but the very profoundly dosage of 30 grams probably makes propentofylline unusable notwithstanding practical purposes for enhancing glutamate uptake.
Riluzole (a remedy for ALS) at a dose of 160 mg elevates GLT-1 glutamate transporter look and activity. 1 2 Riluzole bioavailability is 60%. Riluzole half-life is 12 hours. Molecular consequence: 234. Riluzole costs around $1.50 as being a 50 mg tablet.
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) some antibiotic that increases GLT-1 glutamate transporter cast of countenance and activity by a factor of 3, that is a huge increase.1 2 3 4 5 Ceftriaxone half life is around 7 hours. Molecular influence: 555. A single 500 mg ceftriaxone injecting costs around $14.
Citicoline (a cognitive enhancing complement) at a dose of 2000 mg increases glutamate uptake and increases the form of words of the GLT-1 glutamate transporter in cultured rat astrocytes. 1 Citicoline bioavailability is in effect 100%. Citicoline half life is 3.5 hours. Molecular power: 489.
Valproic acid at a draught of 8 grams increased the general tone of glutamate transporter GLT-1 on the model of stroke. 1
Alpha lipoic acid at prescribed portion of around 270 mg to 1370 mg increases glutamate uptake ~ the agency of 20%. 1 Alpha lipoic acid bioavailability is on all sides 30%. Half life is around 30 minutes. Molecular burden: 206.
Pyroglutamate stimulates glutamate transporter exercise. 1 2 Pyroglutamic acid is beneficial as a supplement. Arginine pyroglutamate is likewise available as a supplement.
Morphine subtraction increases glutamate uptake, and increases the lively representation of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in the hippocampus. 1 (This might potentially explain why some ME/CFS patients experience major improvements in their symptoms the in the days rear taking opioid pain killers, but not for the time of the opioid treatment. See this pass through for more info of this interesting opioid effect).
Low-dose naltrexone may increase astrocyte glutamate transport. 1
Reactive oxygen description hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite impair glutamate enravish into astrocytes. 1
Glutamate Transporter Nomenclature
Glutamate transporter (GLT-1) is likewise called the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2). Glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) is moreover called the excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1). GLT-1 plays the ascendant role in regulating extracellular glutamate; it is liable for clearing 90% of the glutamate from the brain.
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And lastly, a procedure called passion smear staining can be used.